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Tannas Co. & King Refrigeration, Inc. Precision Laboratory Instruments for Routine Testing and Advanced Research & Development of Engine Oils, Lubricants, and Related Fluids


ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials

- Automatic Transmission Fluid

BLB – Brookfield Liquid Bath (ASTM D2983).  King Refrigeration offers two models of the BLB that operate at a wide range of temperatures.  Uses patented SimAir® Test Cells that simulate the cooling rate of the air bath.

BLB DIN – The King Refrigeration instrument model for the Brookfield Liquid Bath that adheres to the German Institute for Standardization test method DIN 51398.

CEC – Coordinating European Council.  European test methods for the petroleum and automotive industries.  

dexos® - GM Global Propulsion Systems engineers developed the dexos® engine oil specification to meet the increasing demands of modern engines.  dexos® licensed products have the dexos® icon on the front label and the 11 digit alphanumeric dexos® license number on the back label.  As long as an oil package displays these two markings, the engine oil is an authentic, licensed dexos® product and is recommended for use in GM vehicles.  For more information about the licensed dexos® brands, visit the Center for Quality Assurance website.

DIN – German Institute for Standardization

FEI – Fuel Efficiency Index

Gelation Index - A measure of the severity of engine oil gelation at low temperatures.  The higher the Gelation Index, the more severe the tendency to cause air-binding in the engine.  Gelation Index values are derived by analysis of the viscosity-temperature curves produced by the Scanning Brookfield test method, ASTM D5133.  Both the Scanning Brookfield and Gelation Index are required tests for passenger car engine oils (ILSAC GF-2, GF-3, GF-4, GF-5, and dexos® Engine Oil Specifications) as a measurement of an oil's pumpability after slow cooling. 

Gelation Index Temperature - The temperature at which the Gelation Index occurs.

HTHS – High Temperature High Shear.  Refers to the TBS Viscometer (ASTM D4683, D6616) by Tannas that measures HTHS Viscosity, and is the referee HTHS instrument against which other viscometers are compared.

ILSAC – International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee

ISO – International Organization for Standardization

JPI – The Japan Petroleum Institute

MRV TP-1 – Refers to the King Mini-Rotary Viscometer - Temperature Profile One.  The King Mini-Rotary Viscometer determines borderline pumping temperatures of oils and lubricants without the use of chiller baths or thermoelectric cooling. It incorporates patented direct refrigeration technology temperature control and precision.  Features a small, bench-top footprint with removable test cells. Meets ASTM D3829, D4684, D6821 test methods. 

PEI – Phosphorus Emission Index

Pour Point – The temperature at which an oil loses its flow characteristics due to solidification at low temperatures.

Quantum®– The non-liquid, Quantum® Oxidation Tester manufactured by Tannas for RPVOT (ASTM D2272, D2112, IP229), TFOUT (ASTM D4742), and Grease Oxidation (ASTM D942) testing.

RBOT – Rotating Bomb Oxidation Test.  Now an obsolete oxidation test replaced by RPVOT test methods.

RPVOT – Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test.  Tannas manufactures the Quantum Oxidation Tester that performs non-liquid, RPVOT oxidation testing according to ASTM D2272 and D2112.

SBT – Scanning Brookfield Technique™ (ASTM D5133, D7110) – measures low-temperature pumpability and Gelation Index of fresh, sooted, and highly oxidized engine oils by continuously recording viscosity over a broad temperature range.  The SBT determines whether, and to what degree, the oil in the sump will flow in adequate quantities to the oil pump.  The lower the temperature at which this test reaches a critical value of viscosity, the more satisfactory the oil.

SBT+2 – Scanning Brookfield Plus Two.  A versatile Tannas instrument capable of multiple test methods including the ASTM D2983 Brookfield Viscosity using patented SimAir™ Test Cells.  Other testing module inserts for the SB+2 include the MRV-TP1 (ASTM D4684), Kinematic Viscosity (ASTM D445), Scanning Brookfield Technique™ (ASTM D5133, D7110), Pour Point (ASTM D97), and Cloud Point (ASTM D2500).

Selby-Noack Volatility Test - An advanced replacement for Noack equipment used to measure evaporation loss of lubricating oils without hazardous Woods metal heating, while permitting the collection of the volatilized material for further analysis.  The only instrument capable of generating values for the Phosphorus Emission Index for passenger motor oils and the Sulfur Emission Index for diesel engine oils.  Meets ASTM D5800 Procedure C and can be adjusted for Procedure B operations.

SEI – Sulfur Emission Index

SimAir® – Simulated Air Bath.  A patented Test Cell developed by Tannas that insulates the test fluid from the bath medium.  Used for ASTM D2983 testing in the King BLB and Tannas SBT+2 instruments.

TBR – Tannas Basic Rotary Viscometer. A more flexible and accurate alternative to kinematic viscosity measurements at low shear rates. Provides viscosity in centipoise directly comparable to rotational measurements at high shear rates. Excellent tool for measuring viscosities of 'used' and highly sooted oils and for comparing true viscosities of multi-grade mineral and synthetic oils.  Instrument of choice for low shear determination of Viscosity Loss Trapezoid (VLT) used in VI Improver containing oil.

TBS – Tapered Bearing Simulator Viscometer - A required test for passenger car engine oils (API SJ, SM, SAE J300, ASTM D4485, ILSAC GF-2, GF-3, GF-4, and GF-5).  Measures the high-temperature, high-shear viscosity (HTHS) of the oil.  Tests a variety of fluid and lubricant types, including automatic transmission fluids (ATF), hydraulic fluids and railroad engine oils. Instrument of choice for high shear determinations used in the Viscosity Loss Trapezoid (VLT).  When operated at 100°C and 150°C, the TBS generates data for applying the Fuel Efficiency Index to engine oils.  Currently, the TBS can be operated in either Manual or Full-Automated modes which can test 42 samples.

TEOST® – Thermo-oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test. A required test for passenger car engine oils (ILSAC GF-2, GF-3, GF-4 and GF-5).  Simulates the high-temperature mix of engine oil and combustion gases and measures the resistance an oil has to forming deposits.  Currently there are two TEOST™ instruments: 33C (ASTM D6335) and MHT™ (ASTM D7097).

TFAB – Tannas Foam Air Bath.  Single bench-top air bath for running all four required foaming sequences (Sequence I, II, III of ASTM D892, and Sequence IV of ASTM D6082).  A safe, efficient alternative to oil baths.  Holds six 1000-mL graduates.  Automatic alarms notify the operator when to take reading for two oil samples simultaneously.

TFOUT – Thin Film Oxygen Uptake Test (ASTM D4742) – a test method run with the Tannas Quantum Oxidation Tester.

TP-1 - Temperature Profile One; a designation of the King Mini-Rotary Viscometer (MRV TP-1) instrument.

VFEI - Viscosity-Fuel Efficiency Index - An algorithm, using TBS values at 100°C and 150°C, determines viscosity-related fuel-efficiency contributions of engine oils using the sum of the power loss of the major sites in the engine, each multiplied by the calculated viscosity of the oil at that site.

VI Improvers - The Viscosity Index (VI) is a common method that measures how the viscosity of fluid changes in relation to the temperature. The higher the VI, the smaller the relative change in viscosity with temperature. VI Improvers are additives that increase the viscosity of the fluid throughout its useful temperature range.  (Source:

VLT - The Viscosity Loss Trapezoid is a unique application of the TBS HTHS Viscometer.  This technique contributes insights into the molecular weight distribution of oil-soluble polymers. It also appraises the total viscous influence of VI Improvers, synthetic fluids, and their combinations by comparing HTHS (TBS) and HTLS (TBR) viscosities both before and after shear degrading the oil.